Part 6 - Networking: http

Let’s go for the next step.

Copy the top5 folder to top6 and enter it. For example, with:

cp -r top5 top6
cd top6


Under Windows and unless you have a proper shell installed (Cygwin, MSYS, GitBash, …) you are probably better off using the Windows Explorer to make a copy of the directory)

The application is growing, but so far the Pyroes have been sourced directly from a list of objects. A real life web application would fetch the information from the network. And that’s why we are also going to do it … virtually.

AnPyLar includes an Http client which can fetch data from the network using ajax, but can also deliver data from local sources. To avoid having to set up a server with an API, we’ll start by using the local sourcing facility.

The additions to this:

  • Adding / Editing / Deleting Pyroes (Editing was the only operation previously supported)
  • Searching for Pyroes
  • Doing it all with the Http client

After we are done, the final layout will look like this

├── app
│   ├── dashboard
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├── dashboard_component.css
│   │   ├── dashboard_component.html
│   │   └──
│   ├── pyro_detail
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├── pyro_detail_component.css
│   │   ├── pyro_detail_component.html
│   │   └──
│   ├── pyro_search
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├── pyro_search_component.css
│   │   ├── pyro_search_component.html
│   │   └──
│   ├── pyroes
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├── pyroes_component.css
│   │   ├── pyroes_component.html
│   │   └──
│   ├──
│   ├── app_component.css
│   ├── app_component.html
│   ├──
│   ├──
│   ├──
│   ├──
│   ├──
│   ├──
│   └──
├── anpylar.js
├── index.html
├── package.json
└── styles.css

Notice that we will be adding:

  • A pyro_search directory for the PyroSearchComponent
  • A for the PyroSearchService

The top-level changes

Let’s first see the modification made at the top level to accomodate change

Pyroes = [
    {'pyd': 11, 'name': 'Pyro Nakamura'},
    {'pyd': 12, 'name': 'Mopynder Shuresh'},
    {'pyd': 13, 'name': 'Pyter Pytrelli'},
    {'pyd': 14, 'name': 'Angela Pytrelli'},
    {'pyd': 15, 'name': 'Claire Pynnet'},
    {'pyd': 16, 'name': 'Noah Pynnet'},
    {'pyd': 17, 'name': 'Pysaac Mendez'},
    {'pyd': 18, 'name': 'Pyki Sanders'},
    {'pyd': 19, 'name': 'The Pytian'},
    {'pyd': 20, 'name': 'Pylar'},
from anpylar import Module, Http

from .app_component import AppComponent
from .app_routing import AppRouting
from .pyro_service import PyroService
from .pyro_search import PyroSearchComponent
from .pyro_search_service import PyroSearchService

if True:
    from .mock_pyroes import Pyroes
    Http.serve(Pyroes, index='pyd', url='api/pyroes/')

class AppModule(Module):

    components = AppComponent

    bindings = {}

    services = {
        'pyro_service': PyroService,
        'pyro_search': PyroSearchService,

    routes = AppRouting

    def __init__(self):

The Pyroes in are no longer Pyro instances. The structure is an iterable of dict entries. And this is so to reflect data that would flow from the network (because the translation to/from Json is straightforward) and somehow the structure of database.

In we do:

  • Import PyroSearchComponent. This is to make it usable in our DashboardComponent, because the pyro_search is part of no route (we could have of course imported in the package defining our DashboardComponent. Do it so if you prefer.

  • Declare the PyroSearchService in the services directive, so that it will be started for us

  • And fake the network service with

    if True:
        from .mock_pyroes import Pyroes
        Http.serve(Pyroes, index='pyd', url='api/pyroes/')

    The Http client in AnPyLar can accept an iterable of dict entries (you tell it what the key is for sorting purposes) and hijack requests that are directed to specicic routes. In our case: url='api/pyroes'. There will be a basic CRUD interface mapped to the POST / GET / PUT / DELETE http methods.

With that in hand we can have a look at the changes/additions to the services.

The Services

from anpylar import Observable, http

from .pyro import Pyro

import json

class PyroService:

    def __init__(self):
        self.http = http.Http(
            headers={'Content-Type': 'application/json'},

    def handle_error(self, e, retval=False):
        return retval

    def get_pyroes(self):
        return self.http.get() \
            .map(lambda x: [Pyro(**p), for p in json.loads(x)]) \
            .catch_exception(lambda e: self.handle_error(e, []))

    def get_pyro(self, pyd):
        return self.http.get(url='{}'.format(pyd)) \
            .map(lambda x: Pyro(**json.loads(x))) \
            .catch_exception(lambda e: self.handle_error(e, Pyro()))

    def update_pyro(self, pyro):
        return self.http.put(url='{}'.format(pyro.pyd),
                             data=json.dumps({'name':})) \
            .catch_exception(lambda e: self.handle_error(e))

    def delete_pyro(self, pyd):
        return self.http.delete(url='{}'.format(pyd)) \
            .catch_exception(lambda e: self.handle_error(e))

    def add_pyro(self, name):
        return{'name': name})) \
            .map(lambda x: Pyro(**json.loads(x))) \
            .catch_exception(lambda e: self.handle_error(e))
from anpylar import http, Observable

from .pyro import Pyro

import json

class PyroSearchService:
    def __init__(self):
        self.http = http.Http(
            headers={'Content-Type': 'application/json'},

    def search(self, term):
        return self.http.get(data={'name': term}) \
            .map(lambda x: [Pyro(**p), for p in json.loads(x)])

Our PyroService has grown quite a bit, but it is still generic. It uses the Http client to issue the aforementioned POST / GET / PUT / DELETE calls in order to implement the CRUD interface.

The new PyroSearchService is also modelled as an Observable and simply retrieves the Pyroes which match the search criterion (which is simply to contain the sought text string)

It is here that the Json stream from the network gets translated to Pyro instances. Recall that we have redefined the Pyroes in to be an iterable of dict entries, because it simulates network information and a database structure.

Changes in the Dashboard

<h3>Top Pyroes</h3>
<div class="grid grid-pad">


There is a single change for the dashboard in dashboard_component.html which is the addition of the <pyro-search> tag. Just below the Pyroes, the dashboard will display our search component. Recall that we have imported the component in (and it will for sure have to define: selector = 'pyro-search'

Changes in the Pyroes

<h2>My Pyroes</h2>
  <label>Pyro name:
    <input *_fmtvalue="pyro_name_" />  <!-- bidirectional binding to pyro_name_ -->
  <!-- (click) passes input value to add() and then clears the input -->
  <button (click)="pyro_add()">  <!-- pyro_add uses the pyro_name_ binding -->

<ul class="pyroes">
from anpylar import Component, html

class PyroesComponent(Component):

    bindings = {
        'pyro_name': '',

    def loading(self):

    def unloading(self):
        self.pyroes_ = []

    def render(self, node):
        # render under ul in render_pyroes when observable self.pyroes_ fires
        with'ul') as ul:  # find node where to display the list
            ul._render(self.render_pyroes, self.pyroes_)

    def render_pyroes(self, pyroes):
        for pyro in pyroes:
            with as li:  # per-pyro list item
                # per-pyro anchor routing path with parameter pyd
                with html.a(routerlink=('/detail', {'pyd': pyro.pyd})):
                    html.span(pyro.pyd, Class='badge')  # show pyd as badge
                    html.txt(' {name}')._fmt(name=pyro.name_)  # obs name_

                with html.button('x', Class='delete') as b:
                    # def param avoids closure using last pyro.pyd
                    def pyro_delete(evt, pyd=pyro.pyd):
                        evt.stopPropagation()  # avoid evt clicking on "a"

            # use "bind" to get event

    def pyro_add(self):
            lambda pyro: self.pyroes_(self.pyroes + [pyro])

        self.pyro_name_ = ''

    def pyro_delete(self, pyd):
        self.pyro_service.delete_pyro(pyd) \
                lambda x: self.pyroes_([x for x in self.pyroes if x.pyd != pyd])

The PyroesComponent has acquired in the html code (pyroes_component.html) an input field with an Add button, which will obviously serve to add new Pyro instances.

The Python code generates an extra x appended to the name of the Pyro, which serves as a button to delete them (the proper styling helps)

Both the Add and Delete actions are served by the methods pyro_add and pyro_delete which piggyback on PyroService for the actions.

Changes in the PyroDetail

<div *_display=pyro_.pyd_>
  <h2 {name}=" x: x.upper())">{name} Details</h2>
  <div><span>pyd: </span><txt [pyro_.pyd_]>{}</txt></div>
        <input *_fmtvalue=pyro_.name_ placeholder="name"/>
  <button (click)="router.back()", name="cancel">Go back</button>
  <button (click)="save()", name="save">Save</button>
from anpylar import Component, html

from app.pyro import Pyro

class PyroDetailComponent(Component):
    bindings = {
        'pyro': Pyro(),

    def loading(self):
        self.pyro_service \
            .get_pyro(self.params.get('pyd', 0)) \
            .subscribe(self.pyro_)  # fetch async and fire self.pyro_ when done

    def unloading(self):
        self.pyro = Pyro()  # clear the editor on unloading: set null Pyro

    def render(self, node):
        pass  # the entire work is done in the html rendering

    def save(self):
        self.pyro_service.update_pyro(self.pyro) \
            .subscribe(lambda x: self.router.back())

The component changes its behavior in a subtle manner:

  • Editions to the name of a Pyro have to be saved Before it was just a matter of editing and the changes were shared across components. But now, the component will be talking to the network service and updating the name remotely.

After that it is the responsibility of other components to fetch the changes


This is obviously not very efficient, because the application could cache the changes internally and avoid hitting the network for everything each and every time. But this is just a sample to show how various components coordinate over the network service.

To implement the behavior, there are new elements, namely:

  • A Save button defined in the html code which binds to the method save (no surprise here when it comes to naming conventions)
  • A save method which updates the Pyro with the method update_pyro of the PyroService

The new PyroSearch

We have already seen above that the dashboard has gained a <pyro-search> tag which will be implemented by a new component. And we have already created the service PyroSearchService which will be used by it.

Let’s create the skeleton of the component with the cli. For example:

cd top6/app
anpylar-component Dashboard

And we add the code, html and css content.

<div id="search-component">
  <h4>Pyro Search</h4>

  <input id="search-box" *_fmtvalue="searchterm_"/>

  <ul class="search-result">
from anpylar import Component, html

class PyroSearchComponent(Component):
    selector = 'pyro-search'

    bindings = {
        'pyroes': [],
        'searchterm': '',

    services = {}

    def __init__(self):
        # connect searchterm to the found pyroes to be displayed
        self.searchterm_ \
            .debounce(300) \
            .distinct_until_changed() \
            .switch_map(lambda x: if x else []) \
            .catch_exception(lambda e: print('search error:', e) or []) \

    def unloading(self):
        self.pyroes = []  # clear result
        self.searchterm = ''  # clear search box

    def render(self, node):

        def sought_pyroes(pyroes):
            for p in pyroes:
                with as li:  # per-pyro list item
                    # per-pyro anchor routing path with parameter pyd
                    html.a(, routerlink=('/detail', {'pyd': p.pyd}))

        with'ul') as ul:
            ul._render(sought_pyroes, self.pyroes_)
.search-result li {
  border-bottom: 1px solid gray;
  border-left: 1px solid gray;
  border-right: 1px solid gray;
  height: 16px;
  padding: 5px;
  background-color: white;
  cursor: pointer;
  list-style-type: none;

.search-result li:hover {
  background-color: #607D8B;

.search-result li a {
  color: #888;
  display: block;
  text-decoration: none;

.search-result li a:hover {
  color: white;
.search-result li a:active {
  color: white;
#search-box {
  width: 200px;
  height: 20px;
} {
  margin-top: 0;
  padding-left: 0;

The Html code

  • Defines an input for which we add a bidirectional binding to an observable (which will be defined in the python code) with: *_fmtvalue="searchterm_"
  • Define a place holder with <ul class="search-result"></ul>. It will be inside in the form of dynamically created <li> tags that the search results will be displayed.

The Python Code

  • Defines bindings (Observables) for the functionality (pyroes and searchterm) which will for example be cleared during the unloading phase. This is meant to clear the list of search results and the input field for the search.

  • Defines a dynamic rendering with ul._render(sought_pyroes, self.pyroes_) Notice that unlike in previous similar bindings, we have defined def sought_pyroes inline. Previously we used methods of the component. Just a different way of doing it.

  • Applies a chain of operations to the searchterm_ observable. Let’s see it

    self.searchterm_ \
        .debounce(300) \
        .distinct_until_changed() \
        .switch_map(lambda x: if x else []) \
        .catch_exception(lambda e: print('search error:', e) or []) \
    • debounce(300): if the searchterm changes within 300ms, discard the previous term. This effectively buffers the sought term for a maximum of 300ms to see if there are any changes. When typing, this is quite common.
    • distinct_until_changed(): if the sought term is resent but it is the same as the last one, simply discard it
    • switch_map(lambda x: if x else []): if the result of the previous operations is an empty search term, return directly a list of empty results (which will converted internally to an Observable). Else: ask the network service for results. The network service returns an Observable which will be observed for the results
    • catch_exception(lambda e: print('search error:', e) or []): If any error happens log it to the console and return a list of empty results. This is a trick, because print returns None and the logical or condition will alwys return the 2nd part of the expression
    • subscribe(self.pyroes_): And pass whatever results the chain produces to the subscriptor which is our binding (observable) self.pyroes_. Because we have bound the rendering under <ul> to any changes in this binding, when the results arrive, <ul> will be re-rendered

Let’s execute

After some groundbreaking changes, let’s see how things work

anpylar-serve top6

And go the browser

The start screen with the dashboard


And because this is inviting, let’s type something exciting like py. If you type it fast, there will be no results displayed until 300ms after you end typing it (this is a static document … difficult to show it).


In this case all Pyroes will be shown because they are all Py ro. Add a t to the string to form a pyt


The list has been reduced to 3 items. Play with the search functionality as much as you like. When you are done, let’s go to our usual Pyroes list


And let’s give our new Add and Delete functionalities a try. We’ll be deleting the 2nd Pyro (our friend Mopynder) to see how this is reflected in the dashboard and we’ll be adding a new super-pyro: Molpy Sanders, who can locate any other Pyro.


And after pressing the Add button


Going back to the Dashboard


Our old friend Mopynder Shuresh is no longer part of the Top Pyroes. In fact, if we search for him, we’ll realize he’s no longer part of the Pyroes at all (remember we have deleted him)


Last but not least, let’s see how our editor looks like.


Up to the reader: edit and Go back. The changes won’t be there. Edit and Save and the changes will be there (in the Dashboard -if part of the Top Pyroes-, in the search results -if found-, and in the list of Pyroes)


After all this … who knows what the Tour will bring for our Pyroes