For the reference see: Promise
AnPyLar ships with its own version of Promises. The standard Python library has Futures (the asyncio one) but Promises go simply a step beyond. Promises are built on top a slighty (yet compatbible) modified version of the Futures to allow setting anything as an error, rather than just a Exception.
The implementation is made following the guidelines of Promises/A+ (or Promises-Aplus)
You may also check the documentation from MDN Web Docs
A Promise is an object that takes an executor (a callable in Python slang) which will be executed by the promise during construction. The executor will ideally start an asynchronous operation (like downloading a web page in the background)
The executor is invoked with callables
resolvefunction which the executor has to invoke if the operation succeeded.
rejectfunction which the executor has to invoke if the operation failed.
When the Promise has been created, one can aweit resolution or rejection by:
The callable has to accept 1 parameter which will contain the result that led to the resolution of the promise.
The callable has to accept 1 parameter which will contain the error that led to the rejection.
These can be chained and not once ... but actually as many times as wished.
Let’s go for a practical example:
from anpylar import Promise, call_delayed def executor(resolve, reject): call_delayed(1000, lambda: resolve(1)) mypromise = Promise(executor) \ .then(lambda x: x * 2) \ .then(lambda x: x * 3) \ .then(print)
As you may expect this will print the following (after 1000ms, i.e.: 1s) in the developer console:
You can test this simply script with
anpylar-serve without creating a
complicated structure by placing the contents in a file
anpylar-serve --auto-serve index.py
We have chained several operations and they have been executed. Let’s see what would happen if the promise ended up in rejection.
from anpylar import Promise, call_delayed def executor(resolve, reject): call_delayed(1000, lambda: reject('Blistering Barnacles!')) mypromise = Promise(executor) \ .then(lambda x: x * 2) \ .then(lambda x: x * 3) \ .then(print) \ .catch(lambda x: print('Error:', x))
Error: Blistering Barnacles!
A more real example¶
So far we have only delayed the execution of call with
call_delayed, but we
can do some real world job, for example:
from anpylar import Promise, Http def executor(resolve, reject): def _resolver(resp): resolve(resp[0:min(50, len(resp))]) # 1st 50 chars of the answer def _rejecter(error): reject(error) Http().get('http://127.0.0.1:2222/index.html') \ .catch_exception(lambda x: None if _rejecter(x) else None) \ .filter(lambda x: x is not None) \ .subscribe(_resolver) Promise(executor) \ .then(lambda x: print('Promise.then:', x)) \ .catch(lambda x: print('Promise.catch: Error happened', x))
If you run this, the console will show the following:
Promise.then: <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>The Title
Let’s change a line to break our code by setting the port to
And the console will now say:
GET http://127.0.0.1:2223/index.html net::ERR_CONNECTION_REFUSED Promise.catch: Error happened
`GET ... error message is from the browser. Our
catch method was
invoked and we know an error happened. Meanwhile, the
then code was left
The real code now¶
Observables can be easily turned into Promises ... you don’t have to do the work yourself.
from anpylar import Http Http().get('http://127.0.0.1:2222/index.html') \ .to_promise() \ .then(lambda x: print('Promise.then:', x)) \ .catch(lambda x: print('Promise.catch: Error happened', x))
to_promise operator turns the Observable into a Promise and forces
an internal subscription to make sure things reach either
catch. Play with it ...